February 24, 2024

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Antimicrobial resistance is one of the top ten global public health threats

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the top ten global public health threats
WHO and other organizations warn about misuse of antibiotics in society (Asebio)

In recent years, the Endurance Many Pathogens want Antibiotics (with other drugs) added Danger to human lifewas Scientists have warned on several occasions. A warning situation By World Health Organization (WHO)It was kept Antimicrobial (RAM) between Top 10 Public Health Threats Humanity faces.

The list includes: pollution and climate change, influenza, antimicrobial resistance, primary care, dengue, non-communicable diseases, fragile environments, Ebola, vaccines and HIV. In particular, AMR ranks fifth on the list and occurs when microorganisms (bacteria, viruses or fungi) undergo changes and stop responding to certain drugs.It makes the treatment of various diseases difficult.

The impact of antimicrobial resistance is very visible 1 to 1.5 million deaths He was told Worldwide by 2022. If this situation continues to escalate uncontrollably, the world may reach 10 million deaths by 2050.

coli bacteria colony photographed in a laboratory (EFE/JULIAN STRATENSCHULTE/Archive)

In World Antimicrobial Resistance Awareness Week From November 18 to 24, 2023, the international slogan is “Together we stop resistance.” In this way, WHO calls for intersectoral collaboration under the “One Health” approach, which recognizes the need for a multidimensional and interdisciplinary response to this global problem.

The Antimicrobial is being framed as a real problem on a planetary scale because, like medicine, Bacteria also form And this selection allows these microorganisms to acquire resistance to new drugs to which they are first exposed. Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella spp. They are some of the microorganisms that have the highest level of resistance to various types of drugs and pose a threat to people’s health.

Doctor Rafael Valdes, Senior Director of Anti-Infectious Medical and Scientific Affairs at Pfizer Latin America, warns that antimicrobial drugs are essential to protect public health. However, their excessive or inappropriate use (for example, not taking them as prescribed or taking what was prescribed for another person) affects their effectiveness.

Antibiotic resistance is a global problem and the more we talk about it the more we want to stop it being “a silent epidemic”. (PHOTO: RODOLFO ANGULO/CUARTOSCURO.COM)

“New resistant microbes are emerging and expanding, regionally and globally, threatening the ability of health systems to deal with common infections and leading to long-term illness, disability and even death. Therefore, it is important Using innovative tools to improve the appropriate use of anti-infectives; That is, avoid their misuse or abuse at all costs. “In addition, we are focusing on developing new therapies and developing strategies to treat serious infections and where there is resistance to conventional drugs,” commented the expert.

“The development of antibiotics, antiviral drugs and anti-malarial drugs are some of the greatest achievements of modern medicine. Currently, the effectiveness of these drugs is decreasing. Antimicrobial, ie The ability of bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi to resist these drugs; It threatens to return us to a time when infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea and salmonellosis were not easily treatable. The inability to prevent infections can seriously compromise certain procedures, such as surgery and chemotherapy,” WHO said on the issue.

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And he added: “Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a major obstacle in the fight against a disease that sickens around 10 million people and causes 1.6 million deaths every year. In 2017, approximately 600,000 cases of TB were resistant to rifampicin. —the most effective first-line drug—of whom 82% had multidrug-resistant TB.”

A large number of infections caused by these bacteria occur in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).

“Drug resistance is due to the overuse of antibiotics in humans, but also in animals, especially for food production, and in the environment – the highest international health organization continues. To implement a global action plan to confront antimicrobial resistance by increasing awareness and knowledge, reducing infections and promoting the prudent use of antibiotics. WHO works with these sectors.

The WHO unit in Europe is trying to stop it Antibiotic resistance and it was expected that it might stop “a A silent epidemic“If we talk about it more. “It will be silent as long as we allow it to be silent. “We need to make more noise,” he warned. Rob Butler Director of the Division of Infectious Diseases, Environment and Health (WHO) in Europe 73rd Meeting of the WHO Regional Committee for Europe Happened a week ago.

The meeting was attended by Ministers of Health and representatives of the 53 WHO Member States in Europe, who supported the new The European Roadmap of Antimicrobial Resistance (RAM). Through this, they seek to identify, prioritize and assist countries in the WHO European Region Use high-impact interventions To deal with RAM.

The emergence of the epidemic diverted attention from the fight against AMR (Getty).

SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection Not only did it bring health problems with the same unknown virus that infected more than 700 million people and caused nearly 7 million deaths, international experts make it clear that both figures should be multiplied by three.

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When the COVID-19 pandemic arrived 4 years ago, previously proposed strategies and resources, both human and financial, contributed to the surveillance and response to this health problem in the Americas region. They were sent back for emergency treatment. Likewise, antimicrobial resistance Due to the increased use of antibiotics to treat people infected with Covid-19, the concern about bacterial infections and the difficulty in differentiating between the two diseases continued to progress.

In addition, infections caused by various multi-resistant microbes increased, and many superbugs (strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics) became prevalent, which meant longer hospitalizations, higher costs, and deaths.

To reduce resistance, they recommend avoiding the misuse of antibiotics and promoting their responsible use (Getty).

The burden of antimicrobial resistance is substantial at the health system level and in each country. It affects Diseases that are more difficult to treat, may spread from person to person, and may require the use of stronger antibiotics or, On the contrary, there are no options for its treatment. Also, the productivity of patients and caregivers can be affected, and certain medical procedures (major surgeries), as well as cancer chemotherapy, can be very dangerous.

“Despite the long history of antimicrobial resistance surveillance, measuring its burden remains elusive. It is imperative that countries, communities, populations and other actors increase our efforts to improve this surveillance capacity to provide more data and value to facilitate its integration into decision-making to combat this health problem,” he said. continued. Valdez.

In Argentina, the need for treatments to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria (GD) is increasing.

Experts in antimicrobial resistance agree that some challenges need to be addressed soon. Including creating awareness among the general public about this global menace and its risks. Likewise, the importance of mobilizing resources for their maintenance, improving the relationship between the public and private sectors, and seeking multisectoral collaboration and greater use of technology.

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Dr. Valdes concluded by pointing out that society itself can implement a variety of actions in an effort to offset the effects of antimicrobial resistance. For example, getting the recommended vaccinations according to your country’s schedule and washing your hands regularly is a cost-effective and effective life-saving measure. In addition to actions related to taking antibiotics, others include covering your nose and mouth when you cough, staying healthy, and staying home if the person is sick.