May 27, 2022

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A genetic factor in the loss of smell and taste due to COVID-19 has been identified

The team found the part of the gene associated with this cleavage near two genes, UGT2A1 and UGT2A2 (Gettyimages).

Many scientists in different parts of the world Some people are involved in the task of finding out why they lose their sense of smell after being infected with Govt-19. This is a symptom commonly described with variants prior to Ómicron, although there are cases in patients with this last mutation.

A study published Monday in the journal Nature Genetics Genetic risk factor associated with olfactory loss identified after COVID-19 infection, An invention that brings experts closer together to understand the confusing pattern This can lead to much needed treatment.

Six months after the outbreak of Govt-19 1.6 million people They have not yet been able to smell or experience a change in their sense of smell in the United States. The exact cause of COVID-19-related loss of consciousness is unknown, however Scientists believe it is caused by damage to infected cells in an area of ​​the nose called the alveolar epithelium. These cells protect alveolar neurons, which help people smell.

“It is not yet clear how we went from infection to loss of smell,” the doctor said. Justin Turner, Associate Professor of Otolaryngology University of Vanderbilt, Quoted NBC News, Who is not part of the course.

“Preliminary data say so The supporting cells of the alveolar epithelium are often infected with the virus, which can lead to the death of neurons. he said. “But we do not know why, when it happens, or why it happens to certain individuals as a priority.”

A genetic site close to alfactory genes According to the study, COVID-19 is associated with induced odor and taste loss. Locus is the stable state of a gene on a chromosome.

This genetic risk factor increases the likelihood that a person with SARS-CoV-2 disease will experience an 11% loss of smell or taste. Although some estimates say 4 out of 5 of covit-19 patients To regain these feelings, Says the study Persistent disability or loss of smell and taste can affect relationships, physical health and psychological well-being.

Smell has been declining for years, and two-thirds of people report some form of odor loss by the age of 70.
Smell has been declining for years, and two-thirds of people report some form of odor loss by the age of 70.

Researchers at 23andMe, a genetic and biotechnology company Conducted this study as part of a larger Govt project. All participants live in the US or UK.

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Within a group 69,841 people Of those who said they received a positive govt test, 68% reported a sign of loss of smell or taste. Odor and loss of taste were linked to a survey question, which is viewed by experts as the scope of the study.

After comparing the genetic differences between those who lost their sense of smell and those who reported not having this effect, The team found the part of the gene associated with this split that is close to the two genes UGT2A1 and UGT2A2. Both genes are expressed within the nasal tissue and play a role in the metabolism of fragrances.

“This is a beautiful example of science, this 23andMe experiment was started by a large number of active research participants who were able to gain some biological insights about the disease very quickly, otherwise it would be very difficult to do,” he said. Adam AutonVice President of Human Genetics at 23andMe and The primary author of the study.

It is unknown at this time what he will do after leaving the post. “May play a role in the physiology of affected cells” and the resulting degradation leads to odor loss.

To use these findings, scientists need to learn more about how these genes are expressed and what their role is in the alfactory signal, Turner said.

Some trends emerged among participants who reported loss of smell and taste: For example, women are 11% more likely than men to experience this. Meanwhile, adults between the ages of 26 and 35 make up 73% of this group.

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The study also found that “people of East Asian or African-American descent are significantly less likely to report a loss of smell or taste.” The reason for this observation is not yet known, but Auton said This is not explained by the genetic variations in this particular area. The panel also notes that the study is biased to people of European descent. Due to limited reference data.

Co-director Daniel Reid said the findings could help patients in two ways Monel Chemical Sense Center. He examined individual differences in odor and taste loss due to COVID-19 and was not part of the new study.

First, “it helps to answer the question of ‘why’ when there is a loss of taste and smell with COVID-19,” he said. “Some have, some do not. Intrinsic genetics may explain why. “

“Recovery is achieved through the study of smell through medical treatment, odor measurement and rehabilitation."Said Dr. Cuevas
“Recovery is achieved through medical treatment, the study of odor through odor measurement and rehabilitation,” Dr. Cuevas said.

This study may help scientists find therapies. Previous research suggests that the loss of these senses is a related one “It failed to protect the sensory cells in the nose and tongue from viral infections,” Reid said.

“This study suggests a different direction,” he said. “The pathways that break down chemicals that cause taste and odor in the first place may be excessive or inactive, reducing or distorting the ability of taste and smell.”

During most corona virus infections, loss of smell and taste are known to be the main symptoms. Early research suggests that loss of smell and taste with the Omigron variant is rare, but not entirely possible: Study Of the 81 omigran cases performed in Norway, 12% reported reduced odor and 23% reduced taste.

As the doctor explained Stella Maurice Cuevas, (MN: 81701), otorhinolaryngologist, olfactory and allergist, Medical advice is recommended in these cases. He also explained how the effect of smell occurs. “Stem cells that replace cells damaged by the corona virus capture odors, which are chemical stimuli that are then converted into electrical impulses, which are carried by the alveolar nerve to the brain, via the cryptoform plate of the ethmoid bone. The nerve endings of the cells that are part of the alveolar bulb conduct signals with alveolar stimuli through chaotic pathways, and this disrupts the sense of smell and taste. Despite these changes, they are films with good prognosis.

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“Currently, cases of another alfactory change have been described: hyperosmia. It has more incidence and occurs more frequently in women than men. It seems to be related to hormonal factors because most of the women consulted are middle-aged, their peak or already menopausal, ”she said.

“Recovery is achieved through medical treatment, olfactory measurement and olfactory research. For more than a decade, there has been clear evidence that training with deodorant products can restore odor. he said. In 2009, A team of German researchers led by expert Thomas Hummel described this amazing possibility of re-training the sense of smell thanks to brain plasticity.. To this end, it is proposed to design an individual protocol in accordance with the priorities of each case and the damages incurred. It transforms training therapy into a personalized process.

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