December 8, 2023

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Drought and rainfall until April 2024, impact of El Niño in Latin America

Drought and rainfall until April 2024, impact of El Niño in Latin America
The El Niño phenomenon involves an increase in ocean temperatures in the Pacific Ocean along with changes in the atmosphere and oceans. This adds to climate change and has various impacts on the planet, such as more droughts and heat waves (Getti).

A new one chapter of the event El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is already forming on the planet. ie sea temperature Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean 0.5 degrees Celsius above average for several consecutive months Other changes occurred in the atmosphere and oceans.

El Nino, a natural phenomenon, is increasing its impact this year Climate change induced by human activities. They can have different effects on the planetFrom heavy rains and floods in some areas to droughts in some areas and affecting human health, More cases of people suffering from heat stroke or mosquito-borne viruses.

Space agency NASA shows how El Niño episodes occurred from 1997 to 2023 (NASA)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) It has already been warned The current El Niño episode is expected to last until at least April 2024. This phenomenon occurs with an average frequency of two to seven years and its duration is usually 9 to 12 months.

Infobay Get access to information about the weather forecast that experts use today Latin America and the Caribbean For the next few months.

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Representative of WMO For North, Central America and the Caribbean, Rodney Martínez Guingla, announced that “El Nino will lead to lower rainfall and higher average maximum temperatures in the Central America in the coming months, especially in the so-called Dry Corridor.” The region is a region that crosses Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala and is home to more than 10 million people, many of whom are dedicated to agricultural activities.

The coming months in Central America will result in less rainfall and higher average maximum temperatures due to El Niño. Countries like Colombia/REUTERS/John Vizcaino are also prone to drought

“Inside MexicoAccording to the country’s SMN for January 2024, rainfall will trend towards decreasing over most of the country. Yucatan PeninsulaTourist towns like Cancun and Playa del Carmen,” said Martinez Quingla.

For South America, Raul Cordero CarrascoA climate researcher from the Department of Physics at the University of Santiago de Chile commented Infobay How El Nino has already impacted and what will happen in the coming months. “In most of South America, El Niño raises temperatures,” he said.

In the basin of Amazon, “El Niño is responsible for the most severe drought in the last 50 years. The drought has not only had important environmental consequences but has also left Ecuador without electricity. The low flow of the Amazon’s tributaries in Ecuador has made it impassable Hydroelectricity It was supplying electricity to the Andean nation,” he opined.

In central and northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil, El Niño could increase rainfall in the coming months (AP Photo/Natacha Pisarenko, File)

“In the Chaco, a region that covers northern Argentina and southern Brazil, El Niño will increase rainfall in the coming months and alleviate the severe drought that has plagued the region in recent years,” Cordero Carrasco said.

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Ghislian EcheverriGeneral Director Institute of Hydrological, Meteorological and Environmental Studies Inside Colombia, also revealed the potential impact of El Niño. The last two months have seen below average rainfall. Colombia’s drought will intensify in December.

“Currently the El Nino phenomenon is moderate, but it may reach strong intensity in summer,” he clarified. Infobay Jose Luis StellaExpert in climate science National Meteorological Service of Argentina. If that strong intensity is reached, the cities of Córdoba, Santa Fe, Corrientes, Missions, Formosa, Entre Ríos, Chaco, Buenos Aires province and Buenos Aires in Argentina, Paraguay and southern Brazil will receive above average rainfall.

Meanwhile, in PatagoniaHe noted that El Niño is associated with a reduced likelihood of extreme heat and heat waves.

In areas where temperatures rise, mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and Zika are more likely to spread (Credit: Getty)

The research team’s researchers say the global event could impact daily activities and create environmental and health disasters One is health from the Faculty of Health Sciences American University (UTLA)Published by the Department of Health Emergencies of the Pan American Health Organization in Ecuador A call to attention In the journal Lancet Regional Health – USA.

In conversation with InfobayOne of the teachers, Esteban Ortiz Pradosaid: “In Latin America, El Niño may cause an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases such as mosquitoes. Deterioration of water quality will increase diarrheal diseases. Damage to infrastructure, population displacement, migration, lack of medicine in climate-affected areas, difficulties in diagnosis due to limited access to certain areas, previously controlled There may also be a resurgence of diseases and burden on health systems.

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Experts have commented on the proposals so that timely action can be taken. “Strengthening of vector control should be adopted. Strategies such as distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, smoking programs, elimination of mosquito breeding sites should be implemented to prevent diseases like dengue and malaria,” he said.

A group of researchers has called on US public health to prepare for potential disasters caused by El Niño/Antina.

Ortiz Prado also insisted that they should be developed emergency plans. Disaster response protocols should be prepared, including humanitarian evacuations, temporary shelters and safe access routes.

Stores with non-perishable food, clean water and essential medicines should be encouraged to be accessible to communities at risk of isolation due to flooding or infrastructure damage.

Additionally, he stressed, “health infrastructure can be improved to ensure access to diagnosis and treatments even in remote or climate-affected areas.”