November 30, 2022

Brighton Journal

Complete News World

War in Ukraine. Alliances, enemies and surprising twists: this is how countries are positioned in the new geopolitical group

On March 2, 2022, six days after Russia began its “special operation” against Ukraine, the UN General Assembly convened in an extraordinary session. Should vote on a resolution condemning such action. Despite overwhelming support for Ukraine, The level of commitment varies greatly from region to region. While some countries were limited to expressing themselves diplomatically, others advanced with severe sanctions against Moscow or decided to send all kinds of weapons to the Ukrainian military. Has been trying to repel the attacks for more than three months, With increasing difficulty.

Although that vote was out of control, the results outlined the various positions within the geopolitical body. In 181 countries, 141 confirmed their pledge kyiv’s “sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity” and Moscow demanded an immediate halt to the use of force and the full and unconditional withdrawal of all its military forces. On the contrary, 35 abstained and only five rejected the measure (Russia, Belarus, North Korea, Eritrea and Syria).

Experts agree with that The United States and Europe — with some subtleties — provided a diplomatic and economic response to Vladimir Putin’s attack and provided military assistance to Ukraine.. “Some countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Poland and other states in Eastern and Central Europe, tend to take a tougher line,” he says. Nation Richard Kaplan, Professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford.

Looking at the pledges of military assistance recorded between February 24 and May 18 Ukraine Support Overseer of the Kiel Company for the World Economy, Washington is a major contributor to over $ 26,000 million. Second country United Kingdom, with $ 2500 million. In comparison, the liabilities of the two countries are approximately 0.1% of GDP. If you take that measure, Ukraine’s smaller neighbors contributed more to its war effort. For example, Poland allocates 0.3% of its GDP and Estonia 0.8%.

“For your part, France and Germany are leading the diplomatic response In maintenance Regular phone conversations with President Putin With the aim of spreading the message of the West and finding a solution to the crisis, but not giving up on Q’s demands, “said Pierre Morgos, a visiting professor. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). “And, with ItalyPlays a definite role in the growth and promotion of A set of ambitious barriers “Collaboration.

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In general, experts insist Unity and speed in Europe’s reaction to Moscow’s occupation. “I was amazed at how quickly and firmly the EU as a whole was able to respond,” Kaplan slides.

“There was a lot of suspicion in the days before the invasion, but I think Russian brutality persuaded the Europeans and forced them to accept the most ambitious resolution possible.. Russia did not expect such a strong and organized response from NATO The biggest miscalculation on Putin’s side. “ Mogos explains.

Macron met with Putin in Russia in an attempt to end the aggression against Ukraine– – Sputnik

The war in Ukraine has provoked unexpected reactions and historic twists in foreign policy. Kaplan gives the first example of Germany trying to list a new trend away from militarism since the end of World War II. Dropped the policy of not exporting weapons to conflict areas. Similarly, After receiving many criticisms for its weak positionNortstream 2 made its position difficult by suspending the certification of gas pipelines and by playing a leading role in the design of barrier packages.

When, Finland and SwedenMainly triggered by their geographical proximity, their historical neutrality and He applied in May to join NATOWill enter the review process this month.

Another case Denmark, That They will leave the clause Excluded from European defense policy for 30 years. The Danish people voted this month in favor of joining military social structures and programs.

Even Swiss He broke his impartiality and surprised along To EU sanctions.

Putin's war strategy suffered some setbacks and EU unity surprised Russian president
Putin’s war strategy suffered some setbacks and EU unity surprised Russian presidentAnatoly Stepanov – AFP

In Latin America The scene is completely different. “Physically and ideologically the region feels far removed from this conflict.”LA NACION Ryan Berg, Principal Investigator of the CSIS Americas Project points out.

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The expert further notes The region has lost its geopolitical relevance in recent years. “The United States is focused on rivalry with Russia and China, including the catastrophic war in Ukraine, and devotes relatively little time to Latin America,” he researched.

That is why the activities of Latin American countries are mainly limited to aligning themselves with the government of Volodymyr Zhelensky through small diplomatic gestures or, in a few cases, Argentina One ChiliWith Distribution of humanitarian aid. ColombiaNATO’s only global partner in the region went one step further and sent a team of engineers to a coalition country to train Ukrainian soldiers in military demining.

Another group of Latin American countries decided to turn a blind eye. Bolivia, Nicaragua, Cuba and El Salvador avoided condemning the Russian invasion.. Nicaragua went one step further and last week authorized its President Daniel Ortega to allow Russian troops and ships to enter the country, which was seen as a provocation to the United States. Venezuela, which is also ineligible to vote in the UN, has publicly declared its support for Russia.

“I disappoint all the countries in the region Do not rush to condemn ‘American imperialism’ and bring the same level of vigor to condemn Russian imperialism. Sounds like a strong double standard. “Berg laments.

Two ambiguous cases in Mexico and Brazil. Both were reluctant to condemn the attack under the banner of neutrality, and when they finally did, abstained from voting in favor of Russia’s suspension from the UN Human Rights Council. Similarly, both countries have sent mixed signals: While in Mexico, Brazil, a month after the war began, the delegation began what became known as the Allied Group with Moscow. President Jair Bolsanaro praised Putin on several occasions.

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“Some countries, especially Brazil, depend on Russian nitrates for fertilizers. It may have caused some reluctance to criticize the war too harshly. Through the BRICS system, Brazil maintains relations with Russia,” Berg said.

Zhelensky speaks to the press about civilian deaths in his country
Zhelensky speaks to the press about civilian deaths in his countryRonaldo Schmidt – AFP

For a variety of reasons, The conditions in Turkey, Hungary and China create another chapter. For example, Ankara entered Bitter debate with other NATO members over Sweden and Finland’s entry into the Atlantic Alliance He threatens to block thanks to his veto power. The government of Recep Tayyip Erdogan accuses Nordic countries of having links with Kurdish militantsIt considers the embargo imposed by these countries and the deportation of some individuals as terrorists since the start of the Turkish incursion into northern Syria in 2019.

Hungary, a member of the European Union, sought to circumvent all sanctions on the camp. Budapest imports 65% of its oil and 85% of its gas from Russia. Similarly, Prime Minister Victor Orban, known for his social and nationalist conservatism and Euroscepticism, was one of the closest European leaders to the Kremlin.

Another country that showed irregular behavior China does not condemn this invasion. Although the president Xi Jinping has vowed that his country is neutral and that peace is his priority, His actions did not match his words. Beijing has repeatedly expressed its interest in deepening relations with its neighbors and has a role to play. Joint military exercise with Moscow over the Sea of ​​Japan during the summit attended by President Joe Biden in Tokyo.

According to Berg, cases in support of Russia do not necessarily respect a particular ideology. “On the left, Putin’s foreign policy rhetoric is impressive. He speaks of the declining power of the United States while Russia and China are inevitably emerging powers. To the right, I think Putin’s internal rhetoric has appealed to some, especially the populist right. Defenders of traditional values ​​against progressives”, Concludes the expert.